Research paper for the Destruction of the Japanese Imperial Navy Combined Fleet

The conclusion volume


 Many editorials are also announced still continuously in today about The Destruction of a Japanese Imperial Navy Combined Fleet.

 A writer probes the record by which the Defense Agency Technical   Research Archives and much including the ancient document by which The National Archives and the Imperial Household Agency         General Affairs Department Archives were found newly,  states the distance and account of the Japanese Imperial Navy Combined Fleet Destruction by a new viewpoint and announces it here.

A chalky tower which built in the Sakaiminato-Citys Daiba park. That is a starting point, (symbol) of the Imperial Navy Combined Fleet Destruction.


In 1927 August 24. The night when 63 ships of  the Combined Fleet gathered in Miho-Bay are chosen as a light cruiser and a destroyer to a main force fleet on the enemy side by the practice plan which easily exceeded the aspect of the late at night and the actual fighting on the same day、light-lessness, high-speed approach and a torpedoed and evacuated.

During these behavior, light cruiser, JINTSUU crash into second class type destroyer WRABI. Bracken collides with explosive sinking and several minutes later in the stern of a second class type destroyer ASI where one in the light cruiser NAKA follows bracken again, and the double collisions from which severed have happened.


A victims of those double collisions were 119, and this was the biggest one in The Navy 10 Important Accident.

An investigation carried without exception about the cause of those accidents were accomplished, and where responsibility was stated by a court-martial.


The reason made the cause are the following 3.

1. It depends on weird severe practice plan.
2. Prohibited of a radar equipped by loaded test phase
3. The 26th, 27th expulsion corps of the second torpedo squadron were arranged in the first torpedo squadron without enough preliminary practice and adjustment just before the practice starting, 
4. A searchlight was used instead of a bombardment, the thing which didn't take measures of dazzling by the direct lighting.


The reason that the Kanji Kato Admiral,Combined Fleet Commander-in-chief put such severe practice into effect.


Kanji Kato, Admiral was strong member-of the Fleet Party which opposes a Washingtonian Arms-Control Pact , and a Navy Naval General Staff chief in those days, Fushimi Hiroyasu、Royalty and the Heihachiro Togo, Admiral who is a Marshal again for life espoused a tenet principle of a capital ship decisive battle and the dwindling plan which decreases the number of the enemy side battleship before a decisive battle (doctrine) hard, and when there were no ways of a victory in anything but the fact which raises the fighting power of the individual the number of soldiers, were seized with strong faith by practice and  practice, settled on a plan of maneuvers of this Mainland Going Around. One after an explosive accident of minelayer TOKIWA didn't also cancel to maneuver, and one after Mihonoseki Offing Event also continued maneuvering.
That was an expression of a Spirit Supreme Principle with a human life slight.



The spirit supreme principle

Japanese circumstances in those days were looking up at resources indispensable for armaments in import for petroleum, natural rubber and porkiside (raw material of aluminum) also the Japanese technical development power of the those days, the industry and the industrial foundation were weak.

Repeated a minute practice and put it into effect for the only means to handle to a mighty target, and there was no outside which raises the level of the strategy to the limit.

There was no resting day on the weekend for a week, bat every day in practice. and it was the severe one of Monday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Friday. 
The people trusted a navy and supported and cheered this hard practice. 
The following motto permeated the people widely in 1930 's after starting of a Japan - China Trouble. 
"The wealth and military strength of a country", "Crusade accomplishment", "Whole nation be one hearts". "The spirit of universal brotherhood", “ Be killed in a battle and devote oneself to a state",  "Only attack". "Whole nation be fireball sauce". 
A newspapers and radio advertised those simultaneously.  
Morever when peoples didn't follow dignity and virtue of a god from fear to a wind in Japan with a lot of hurricanes, the character which wishes for "divine wind" and believes in it based on the belief punished by a divine wind matched a true intention of the national public.
 The power of words belief which fears the spiritual power has after ancient time、Man'yōshū (8th century anthology of Japanese poetry; Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) also rooted widely.
The spirit supreme principle was based on such foundation of emotional depths.

Victory or defeat of the Japanese side in the naval battle which comes to 21 times was eight wins (Isoroku Yamamoto, Admiral), seven losses (Mineichi Koga, Admiral, Soemu Toyota, Admirl and Jizaburou Ozawa, Vice Admiral) and six draw (Isoroku Yamamoto, Admiral) at the Pacific Ocean theater of operations in Greater East Asian War.



Combined Fleet commander-in-chief during Great East Asian War

Isoroku Yamamoto Admiral (in August 11, 1941 ~
Mineichi Koga  Admiral  (in April 21, 1943~March 31, 1944)  
Soemu Toyota  Admiral  (in May 3, 1944-~May 29, 1945)
Jizaburou Ozawa  Vice Admiral  (in May 29, 1945-~October 10, 1945)


When Isoroku Yamamoto, chief had been killed in a air battle,(Navy A Event), Nobutake Kondo, the Second Fleetcommander-in-chief executed a direction of a combined fleet vicariously until  successor's Mineichi Koga, a chief arrival. 
When Mineichi Kog, the chief died in the line of duty by the Navy B Event、Shiro Takas, Southwestern District Fleet Commander-in-chief executed direction of a combined fleet vicariously until successor's Soemu Toyota, a chief arrival.
It's presumed that the Naval General Staff and top-level executive was busy with personnel announcement of the period storage which plans for condition recovery.


The new strategy by which a night approach attack becomes impossible and corresponds by a proximity fuse, an active sonar and a high-performance radar (the scope function which combined and piled improvement on removal of  the ground reflective wave and moving target indicator in particular with the hight measurement radar), as well as loss of command of the air.That can be established, without, and go around to defensive battle earnestly.  
And there is only a spirit supreme principle for the special attack means which still continue going to war. That was a suicide attack assuming death.


Okinawa Special  Attack
The end of March, 1945, "Combined Fleet Headquarters (GF) exercised "Heaven No.1 Strategy" in response to Okinawa landing strategy of U.S. forces.  GF commander-in-chief issued the next instructions in the famulus unit
"We assume an imperial navy unit cooperates with the army and that mentions full strength in Empire land and doesn't carry out an all-out attack to an enemys warships around Okinawa Island,
For rise and fall in an Empire, this, the one by which intensity commanded a matchless plunge strategy has that at a stroke and organizes a marine special attack unit, and that boosts tradition of the Imperial Navy Marine Unit which concentrates the imperial navy power in this one action and has brilliance as well as doesn't tell the honor in posterity, it's done, outside won't be, each corps always fights increasingly in spite of the special attack corps barrel and no, of an enemy warship corps, everywhere, an empire exterminates and should establish an eternal foundation "


Okinawa Compulsory Attack

(Kikusui Operation )

"The battleship Yamato", accompaniment were Light Cruiser 1. Destroyer 8.

Dispersal (death) in the south other world And show the loyalty left.
Of a spirit supreme principle, going to reach was annihilated as for a human bomb (Cherry-Blossm, manned flight bomb), a human submarine (Kaiten, Epoch making deed, manned steering torpedo)、Spesial assault craft(Sinyou -Sea Shaker, manned bonb-equiped boat), and a human underwater mine (Fukuryuu -Dragon hide in Water、 manned tendency underwater mine) in the final stage of the tide of a war.
A combined Fleet followed the abysmal way of grief despair from a glorious seat of series of battles consecutive victories of a beginning of a game.

The reality of "Kikusui Strategy"


First number strategy, April 6 - the 9th.
  391 naval aircraft and 133 army aircraft
(Special Attack to the Okinawa water area of a battleship "YAMATO", April 7)


Second number strategy 、April 11 and the 12th.
  354 naval aircraft and 139 army aircraft
(one bonb equipped Fighter of 32 naval planes was rushed into b attleship「Misery」, and  inflicted slight damage on the rear right deck.)

Captain William Caravan of the Misery state "The courage and the skill of the pilot who avoided intense anti-aircraft fire and reached here are admirable ,as same military personnel, and put a the corpse to burial at sea.


Third number strategy, April 26.
  415 naval aircrafts and 92 army aircrafts.


Fourth number strategy, April 28
587 navy aircrafts    


Fifth number strategy, May 4
Respond to an all-out attack of the 32nd army in
Okinawa Island.


Sixth number strategy, May 11.
   345 naval aircrafts and 136 army aircrafts


Seventh number strategy, May 24.
  387 naval aircrafts and 147 army aircrafts.


Eighth number strategy May 27.
   217naval aircrafts and 71 army aircrafts


9th number strategy, June 7.
  367 naval aircrafts  and 71 army aircrafts 


10th number strategy, June 21.
 271 navy aircrafts . 


Totaling;2.200 naval aircrafts  and 700 army aircrafts .
A total gain:27 ships of sinking (all small war vessels, transport ships and boats for landing, etc.) and 368 ships of damage (battleship.  aircraft carrier is included.)

(US side record material)

A navy tied a 250kg bomb to remains zero type scouting hydroplane of and zero type vesell-borne observation planes, made them take off in a final stage, and more trainers in flight "white chrysanthemum" and beginner's course trainers "red dragonfly" of scouting personnel were even dispatched to the special attack.
The trainer was subject to a heavy 250kg shocking surprise, and made flies while strolling. When night, they were shot down by waiting enemy plane P-61 (Black Widow, with radar equipped).


The military gain confirmation which is a basis element of operational research (operational research and abbreviated designation OR are the scientific technique about which I decide so that it may become most efficient on the occasion of various plans by use of a statistical model and algorithm mathematically) is described.
A guard battle was doing military gain confirmation at the early stage of the strategy implementation, but reception of a plunge signal was special attack without aerial support gradually, and lowered radio equipment for weight reduction by a final stage and made them start, and also continued condition strategies without situation judgements in the impossible state.
Therefore confirmation of a military gain is in the states have no choice but to judge by only U.S side record material after the war.
It’s couldn't help saying that the military gain was too little to the attack in which equal about 3.000 planes, but there was something which has the a lot of psychological influential effect which gave it to a U.S. soldiers.
At 8:15am on August 6, 1945. The uranium 238 type atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima-City, 66,000 people die during 350,000 people of human work. The Press bureau of the Imperial Headquarters released this with a “special bomb”.
At 11:00am on August 9, 1945,
Prutonyum 239 type atomic bomb (with Hiroshima's double power) was dropped on Nagasaki-City. 80,000 persons dead. during 240,000, population.

On August 9, 1945. The Soviet breaks a Mutual Nonaggression Treaty of Japan and the Soviet Union one-sidedly and enters the war, advance to Manchukuo, Sakhalin and Krill islands.

On August 10. Japanese Government accepts a Pottamu declaration formally.

On August 14. An order of "vs. The Soviet  and "vs. US positive aggressive cancellation was issued from a Navy General Corps commander-in-chief, Jizaburou Ozawa,Vice Admiral. 

Many officers and men understood as " "abnormal circumstances", and were astonished, and disappointed, and fell into disorder. There was several units which raises battle continuation like Atsugi flying corps, but made all units and a bases later demobilized quietly with a gist of His Majesty the Emperor's radiobroadcast several days later, and returned to each homes.

At the Omura Navy Flying Corps, we all knew the reality of the base which became a ruin by intense big air raid of U.S. forces and ground attack, so it was taken in the life of the engagement stop and the disarmament.  A writer, as a telegram operator of night fighter was engaged in removal work of a propeller of a remains night fighter " “Moonlight" and removal of magazine of 20 millimeter guns and telegram set by the order of the engagement stop and the disarmament.



Remains war vessel of the The Imperial Navy
The war vessel on the water which is much in each naval base is an anti-aircraft fort charge.
From July, the violence, oh, most suffered destroying damage below the battleship, a heavy cruiser, light cruiser, an aircraft carrier, a destroyer, a submarine, a transport, a torpedo boat, a subchaser, a minesweeper, minelayer and a special duty boat by the union offensive of the fighter and the bomber union of the U.S. forces aircraft.
Among 523 in total remains War vessel, something well was 407.  No Battleship and Heavy cruiser Exsist.

For the aircraft carrier well only completely "Housyou" is an old-fashioned small ship, and no ships of practicality is. A light cruiser, "Sakawa", 30 destroyers and only 54 submarines were the power by which a battle is possible, this, also, it was impossible to be dispatched by fuel exhaustion. That was the real form of the end of a combined fleet.


Ozawa Vice Admiral, Navy Headquarters Chief organized a Marine Mobile Behavior unit with a certain destroyers. The organization is as follows.
A commander; 31st squadron commander and Takeshi Matsumoto, Measure Admiral
Flagship: kagetu
The 41st expulsion corps (Fuyu, Natu)
The 43rd expulsion corps (Yoigetu, Hisi, Take, Maki, Kuzu, Sii.)
The 52nd expulsion corps (Sugi, Kasi, Kaede, Nasi, Hagi, Kaba)
Kitagami, Namikaze.


Total of 18 of the above, light cruiser 1, anti-aircraft destroyers 4 and 13 destroyers. Those are equivalent for tow torpedo squadrons.
But it couldn't be even done to do unification practice for a fuel lack, and loss was met while being moored at a camouflage berth around Kure City or Yanai area.



Remains airplane

All kinds' 1851 Fighters
All kinds' 3772 Trainers
1330 Attackers on the ship and the said bombers.
All kinds' Scout plane, 441.
A total: 7394.  Details depend on attachment.
Shall make it Special Attack, by lack of pilots and the state by which most is operation impossibility for fuel exhaustion.
The form of the death of the Combined Fleet Air Fighting Power that bright achievements was put back in the beginning of a game.




1.The Pacific Fleet commander-in-chief, Chester Minute, Marshal say about Vice Admiral Ozawa. "A commander who excels is a great commander, and it's only the value of the journalism that the commander who discounted is a foolish commander.  In fact commander's outcome is in a possibility that he has it. Even though they say a defeated admiral, as far as a possibility is admitted by him, they're a great commander. The record is continuation of defeat in case of a OZAWA commodore, but they're making a terrible possibility ask in the defeat. The subordinate is certain that rejoiced probably to work under him." 



2.Encounter with a affiliated at The 7th Fleet of in the US navy general-purpose destroyer "Cushing" 
A large type general-purpose destroyer of the United States Navy 7 fleet belonging "Cushing" (9.700 ton) put in Sakai harbor in 20-22th October, 1999.
North Korea corresponded to the first missile launch for the Sea of Japan. Cushing dispatched for the supervision and cautious duty, and when the duty end, stop for rest and goodwill with Sakaiminato Cityzen,
Expression of courtesy boarded, I am as a chairperson of the Former Navy and Defense Cooperation Group of Tottori-Prefecture West District.
Mr.Youji Umetani, advisor of foreign affairs from Sakaiminato City Office, and administrative department chief from Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , Maizuru District were Boarded.
Mr,Youji Umetani, advisor of foreign affairs was explained about a goodwill program with a citizen during Cushing's stop, and I advanced a tour of a cenotaph to a captain Symons, commander. A lithograph of a war vessel collision schematic of Mihonoseki Offing Event was offered up to a cenotaph in case of 20th anniversary of Sea Friend Meeting establishment exactly, and it was embedded in a building side wall of the bottom structure of the tower,  so I thought it was convenient for the explanation.
Mr,Robert Jordanian Counsel General in the Osaka USA. Mr,Amano Tou politics and financial professional government service in addition to a captain Symons commander were also led by a tour.
I, Explained the whole picture of the Mihonoseki Offing Event out of which the biggest victim was taken during Imperial Navy Big Ten Events. Symons captain asked "Why was such reckless practice put into effect ?"
"The possession rate of the capital ship and its proportion was USA, 10; British 10: Japan 6 as a result of the disarmament conference of Washington Convention, optimistic. The dwindling plan which decreases the number of the capital ship on the enemy side by night torpedoing of the bottom of the assertion of a navy Naval General Staff to say that we didn't have that, a fleet decisive battle principle and a torpedo squadron which consists of destroyer as a decisive battle previous master was set as a doctrine, and reached the severe practice which exceeds the aspect of the actual fighting and the judgement that has no choice but repetition of a hard training and maneuver.", I added.
The captain asked about more disposal of a combined fleet Kato Kanji Admiral, I answered  "He was summoned to a court-martial, but after Navy Combined Funeral Rites at Naval Port Maizuru. The practice was continued without getting a punishment in particular. And he turned to work for the navy Military Command Deputy Manager in the next year."
The captain honored and murmured a tower without a word, "This is the monument which are historical relics."  And said I'll make many  members visit in the afternoon of tomorrow, so whether you can explain it,",  I response  "I would be happy to do so".
3.A lithograph of a mourning inscription of Kyoto Imperial professor, Hiroyuki Miura doctor of literature is embedded in a wall in a building in a bottom in this tower
It’s said that "Decided to do a reform measure of various types so that an accident of this seed might be never caused. Tell martyr to duty's soul, We understand and am convinced somehow, and, with desire" it's written. And indicate on an end of a mourning sentence "Settled on this place with the only place where have a history, build a monument, mourn over spirits of dead soldiers  can be a chief and comfort.".
4.It was revealed about an anticollision between the war vessels that what kind of measure doesn't take specifically after adopted one or many ancient documents etc. was probed. 
It doesn't also seem that could consider the basic intermediary of obstacle measure using a sound wave that implementation is possible by technology in those days. It wasn't possible to criticize that as of today.
 A collision of a war vessel between the friendly also isn't little, and shows the several examples as follow.
(1) May 15,1904, Arming Cruiser "YOSINO" and Protected Cruiser "KASUGA” collision. (sight badness for thick fog) 
(2) October10,1930, Special Maneuvers
Light Cruiser "KITAGAMI" and ABUKUMA" collision
(3) June29,1934 Night Anti-Submarine Practice at the Korean Peninsula south offing. Destroyer "IKAZUTI" and "MIYUKI" collision
(4) On January 21, 1943, A destroyer "HATUYUKI" crashes into a starboard central part of a light cruiser "NAGARA" by 21 knots, because of light badness by rain during a rush for landing strategy support of KenDali capture in Celebes Island southeastern area. "HATUYUKI". front of the front gun turret destroys.
(5) October 20-25, 1944、Leyte Offing Naval Battle.
   Heavy Cruiser "NACHI" and "MOGAMI" collision
5.An original headstone signature in this tower was a「loyalty monument」

After loss of Greater East Asian War, a signature edition in a loyalty monument was torn off and was a nameless tower for about 10 years. That surmised an aim of a Japanese occupation commander in chief, Douglas MacArthur Marshal of Allied Forces, and was performed.
Japanese acquires a custom with will in the top. Nobunaga Oda, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, and Ieyasu Tokugawa, were the top in the Warlike Ages. Gen. MacArthur was the top in the occupation age of allied forces for 7 years and a half from the loss by which an Emperor was the top after Meiji. Period. Present is also those days for the headstone signature of "marsh and bracken martyr to duty loyalty tombstone" in the Navy Graveyard in Sasebo-City. Condition is maintained.  Many loyalty tombstones by which a person killed in action was deified are left for the whole country just as it is, but it isn't possible to criticize the process a headstone signature was stripped of as of today. This thing is common sense of a history researcher.
The postwar and around this nameless tower, it gets rough, It‘ssay that it was still left.
In case of the visit by which His Majesty the Emperor is Sanin-District in 1947, this nameless tower, Emperor went the spot and worship. A photographer Mr, Shoji Ueda took a picture of its form, and it's left as a record.
The record by which 6 navy ex-soldiers from Sakaiminato City did quiet mourning worship at the Navy Memorial Day of May 27, read a sutra of Yamada exSergeantmajor burned incense and appeased the spirits of a martyr to duty every year is left from the second half in 1945 's.
In 1957, 30th round anniversary memorial service of Sakaiminato-City sponsorship was performed. A new headstone signature "cenotaph" was put on the festival in a tower.  Gen,Keizo Hayashi of the Defense Agency Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff drew the original in ink. Sakaiminato-City did 50th round anniversary、80th rounds anniversary,too.
Tottori-Prifecture Western Sea Society put "mourning commemoration exhibition" into effect by a request in a memorial service of an anniversary 80th rounds.
The “Tottori-Prefecture West Sea Society” which integrated a navy man meeting in Tottori- Prefecture west area on May 27, 1979  started.
The "Mihonoseki Offing Event martyr to duty defense meeting of honors" which continued a memorial service for since then for 30 years、 and started newly by member's aging succeeds to tradition, and intention is talking about the mourning worship system an anniversary of death on August 24 every year, and an attendance increases every year.
We and many persons who protect a cenotaph restore a headstone signature in this chalky tower in the original form "loyalty monument", introduce this tower to the world widely as a cultural asset of national designation and dream of the day much sightseeing person who learns Japanese culture and history visits.  We are also making further effort towards the discovery which are concerned material and document, etc. in Mihonoseki Offing Event and am doing the various cultural activities to hand the valuable lesson derived from those、for the young people who carries the next generation at present.

Preparations are being advanced to put the grave event which can be put under the new name of an era on 2021 May 15 (the Navy Memorial Day) "Mihonoseki Offring Event Recollection Panorama Eexhibition" into effect. Expects many visitor's visit to the Exhibition.

Exhibition of material, picture and ancient document read at Archives Building and a Defense Ministry Technical Research, National Archives and the Imperial Household Agency Mausoleum Ancient Document General Affairs Department Official Document Room, etc.
Panel exhibition of 60 pictures, panoramic exhibition of reproduced 63 ships of combined fleet gathered in Miho-Bay by the form of the those days. Also much material including record and video opening to the public record, the contents variously.
 Of many persons of the world interested in Japanese history and culture, of.  We are waiting for.



REIWA 1 (2019) May 27  

Writer: Kaoru.Matsushita
Review Person:Youji Umetani
Publisher: Mihonoseki Offing Event Martyr to Duty Cenotaph Support Association.